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Harvard system Referencing Guide
This guide sets out the Harvard system of referencing to be used in the Thesis & other major essays submitted as part of the course taught through out the MBA program. It is important to reference published material that you wish to use in your essay. While referencing is a standard that is used to avoid plagiarism it also supports a strong scientific method.
To build arguments & provide evidence you must reference any published resources you use. The spirit of referencing is embodied in Newton's famous 1676 quote, 'If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants'. It means that Newton's great discoveries were made by building on the previous work of scientists. This reference guide sets out how to reference other authors' work properly.
For each type of material you are referencing (e.g. books, journal articles, newspapers, internet sites), this guide presents two parts, how to write the reference in the text of your essay & how to write the full reference at the end of the essay. The section at the end of the essay should be called a reference section & only include those references cited in the essay. For the purposes of this guide these two sections will be called in-text referencing & the reference list format.
2. GENERIC FORMAT
A note on paraphrasing & quoting: Quotes are direct transcriptions of text from other sources while paraphrasing uses your own words to express others' ideas. You should attempt to paraphrase where possible & only use quotes sparingly & strategically. Both paraphrasing & quoting require referencing, & quotes must refer to the page number from which they were taken (see Books).
The Harvard system has a generic format for in-text referencing & the reference list. While this guide provides a range of examples for books, articles, Internet sources etc, the generic format below should be used where adaptation is necessary.
(Author, year) or Author (year) e.g. Sillince (1996) or (Sillince, 1999)
Author, (Year) Title. Place Published: Publisher.
e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1996) Business Expert Systems. Hitchin: Technical Publications.
Author, (Year) 'Article title'. Journal Title, volume (number): pages.
e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1999) 'The role of political language forms & language coherence in the organizational change process'. Organization Studies, 20 : 485-518.
The following exemplifies several in-text references for books with one, two, more than two authors, & authors cited by another author. When citing more than two authors, list all authors' surnames the first time, then use et al. (see example). Note the different formats for the in-text referencing of paraphrasing & quotes (with page number) & the complete references in the reference list.
The development of bureaucratisation in the UK was fundamentally different from that of the US. The Taylorist efficiency movement occurred in the US during an expansionary period while the same movement occurred in the UK during one of the worst ever recessions (Littler, 1982). Littler (1982) concludes that for these reasons the labour movements in the UK are fundamentally different from those in the US. These differences in capitalist development had important consequences, 'This affected the pattern of resistance, & British capitalism still carries the scars of this historical conjuncture' (Littler, 1982: 195).
Managerial skills are a key focus for Whetton & Cameron's (1991) introductory text.
Three or More Authors
Smith, Child & Rowlinson's (1990) case study of Cadbury's Ltd revealed that the corporate culture's resistance to change was diminished by the use of new concepts & symbols. The new vision embodied in the transformation was also facilitated by key change agents located strategically throughout the organisational structure (Smith, et al., 1990).
Author cited by other Author
Haslam, Neale, & Johal (2000) outline Porter's (1980) industry structure analysis. It features five important forces; barriers to entry, buyers, suppliers, substitutes, & intensity of rivalry (Porter , 1980, in Haslam, et al., 2000). Haslam, et al. (2000) cite Pharmaceutical giant Glaxo-Wellcome as particularly at risk of low-cost substitutes as drug patents expire.
Alphabetically ordered list of references:
Haslam, C., Neale, A., & Johal, S. (2000) Economics in a Business Context 3rd ed. London: Thompson Learning.
Littler, C.R. (1982) The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies. London: Heinemann.
Smith, C., Child, J., & Rowlinson, M. (1990) Reshaping Work: The Cadbury experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whetton, D.A., & Cameron, K.S. (1991) Developing Management Skills 2nd ed. New
4. JOURNAL ARTICLES
In-text referencing of journal articles uses the same format as books (see above). Notice that the reference list includes the name of the journal article & the name of the journal. Be wary of electronic journals or articles retrieved from the internet as some formats may not include the original page numbers you might need for direct quotations.
Broadbent, Jacobs, & Laughlin's (1999) comparison of the organizational accountability of UK & New Zealand Schools reveals important distinctions. Broadbent, et al. (1999) discuss how management accounting in UK schools results in an individualistic focus in contrast to the socialising focus of an integrated financial accounting in New Zealand Schools. An individualising focus may result in undermining 'the capacity for communal action & alienate the organisational members from the activities that they are required to undertake' (Broadbent, et al., 1999: 358).
5. INTERNET SITES
Broadbent, J. Jacobs, K. & Laughlin, R. (1999) 'Comparing schools in the U.K. & New Zealand: Individualising & socialising accountabilities & some implications for management control'. Management Accounting Research, 10: 339-361.
The variability of internet site quality is problematic for referencing in academic essays. However, access to annual company reports, press releases, & daily news services provide ample reasons to utilise the internet in essays. Journal articles obtained over the internet should use the standard journal format unless the journal is solely in electronic format (see below).
Wiegran & Koth's (1999) article on successful online commerce focuses on customer loyalty, increasing purchases, & higher margin products. They propose five website features to achieve successful online commerce; Value added information, personalisation, intelligent communication, user generated content, & loyalty incentives (Wiegran & Koth, 1999). Since 1991, the price of oil has reached its highest in February 2000 & this rise is due to OPEC restrictions on oil production (BBC, 2000).
BBC, (2000, February 19) 'Oil reaches $30 a barrel'. (BBC News), Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/bus...000/644028.stm (Accessed: 2004, February 20).
Wiegran, G., & Koth, H. (1999) 'Customer retention in on-line retail'. (Journal of Internet Banking & Commerce), Available: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC 4(1), (Accessed: 2004, February 20).
Use same as Books (i.e. Author, year). If no author is found then use full name & date as follows:
The oil crisis has caused parents to 'consider home education' (The Times. 9th July 1973:3).
7. CHAPTER IN EDITED COLLECTION
The Times (1973) 'Oil Crisis Impacts on Learning'. 9th July: 3.
Smith's (1991) examination of flexible specialisation focuses on production & consumption. [Note that the author's cited chapter is taken from pages 138 to 157 from Pollert's Book, 'Farewell to Flexibility'.]
8. COMPANY PUBLICATION
Smith, C. (1991) 'From 1960s' Automation to Flexible Specialisation: A déjà vu of technological panaceas'. In A. Pollert (ed.) Farewell to Flexibility: 138-157. Oxford: Blackwell.
Flexible work technologies are a key focus for British Telecom. BT has set up a consultancy unit that specializes in employing flexible working practices with respect to technology (British Telecom, 1999).
9. CITING AN AUTHOR WITH MORE THAN ONE PUBLICATION IN SAME YEAR
British Telecom (1999) Annual Review & Summary Financial Statement. London: British Telecom.
Haslam, Williams, & Williams (1990a) investigate a consultancy process that specializes in intelligent communication, user generated content, & loyalty incentives (Haslam, Williams, & Williams, 1990b).
Haslam, C., Williams, J., & Williams, K. (1990a) 'The hollowing out of British manufacturing'. Economy & Society, 19(4): 456-490.
10. INTERVIEWS & PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Haslam, C., Williams, J., & Williams, K. (1990b) 'Bad work practices & good management practices'. Business History Review, 64(4): 657-688.
Students are advised not to reference personal communication (e.g. lectures or meetings) unless they are part of a submitted field research project with a relevant section on methods.
One respondent believed that postmodern research methods were indicated by the use of computers & quantitative algorithms with traditionally qualitative textual analysis (Innes, 2000).
Innes, P. (2000) Interview, no.01a00, 22 March.
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لوحة الشرف لمؤسسي المنتدى
نشمي الشمري(ادارة اعمال)، عبدالله العجمي(ادارة أعمال)، مرزوق العنزي(تربية)، ماجد الرويحل(انجليزي)، سعد السعد(تربية)، علي بوشهري(تربية)، أسامة الزعبي(تقنية معلومات)
مراقب المنتدى العام
أحمد تقي(تقنية معلومات)، حمد الفضلي(تقنية معلومات)
أفرع الجامعة العربية المفتوحة